News

Incidents and incident reports in 2018

Date of publication: 15/03/2019, przemyslawf

Publication of our annual report is coming soon. Editing is moving forward at full speed, but in the meantime we’d like to share some statistics concerning 2018. This statistics provide a big bicture of an IT security landscape in Poland and as well conclusions about major trends in this area. For many years already CERT Polska has incorporated eCSIRT.net incident classification (now, the sixth version marked as mkVI)1, which defines pretty well different incident categories.

In 2018 operators of CERT Polska received 19439 incident reports. We carefully analyzed and categorized all of them. Among these reports, 5675 were the reason to register incident. Our team created 3739 security incidents, what gives on the average over 10 incidents created daily. The remaining a dozen or so reports not assigned to any incident were irrelevant or can be considered as automatic alerts sent from several alerting systems. In case of the latter our activities were connected with supplying our n6 platform2 and other analytic tools as well.

Often, one incident can be connected with many incident reports, e.g. three different entities report the same phishing site.

In the table below we present incidents handled by our team, divided into categories according to eCSIRT.net classification.

Category Incidents %
Abusive Content 431 11,53
Spam 419 11,21
Harmful Speech 5 0,13
Child/Sexual/Violence/… 0 0
Unclassified 7 0,19
Malicious Code 862 23,05
Virus 4 0,11
Worm 0 0
Trojan 117 3,13
Spyware 0 0
Dialer 1 0,03
Rootkit 1 0,03
Unclassified 739 19,76
Information Gathering 101 2,7
Scanning 80 2,14
Sniffing 1 0,03
Social Engineering 7 0,19
Unclassified 13 0,35
Intrusion Attempts 153 4,09
Exploiting of known Vulnerabilities 30 0,8
Login attempts 37 0,99
New attack signature 0 0
Unclassified 86 2,3
Intrusions 125 3,34
Privileged Account Compromise 11 0,29
Unprivileged Account Compromise 21 0,56
Application Compromise 35 0,94
Bot 4 0,11
Unclassified 54 1,44
Availability 49 1,31
DoS 7 0,19
DDoS 35 0,94
Sabotage 0 0
Outage (no malice) 1 0,03
Unclassified 6 0,16
Information Content Security 46 1,23
Unauthorised access to information 21 0,56
Unauthorised modification of information 13 0,35
Unclassified 12 0,32
Fraud 1878 50,23
Unauthorized use of resources 1 0,03
Copyright 8 0,21
Masquerade 43 1,15
Phishing 1655 44,26
Unclassified 171 4,57
Vulnerable 69 1,85
Open for abuse 14 0,37
Unclassified 55 1,47
Other 25 0,67

Table 1. Incidents handled by CERT Polska, divided into eCSIRT.net categories

 

In 2018 CERT Polska created 17,5% more incidents comparing to 2017. Most of them were categorized as phishing, malware or spam. According to the data from 2017 we observed slight change on the podium in that infamous ranking, because then the first three places went as follows: phishing, malware, intrusions. Proportion of phishing incidents remained on similar level comparing to 2017 and reached 44%, which was firmly dominant result above remaining categories. Most popular scenarios were connected with phishings on foreign servers targeting Polish financial institutions (mostly banks). Another popular scenarios were related to phishings targeting services like Netflix or PayPal served from compromised Polish servers. Leading theme behind those attacks was premium users’ credentials theft or simply stealing money from internet bank account. Many scenarios concerned also selling goods on advertisement websites at the attractive prices. Main objective of these operations was to persuade users to enter sensitive data on fake websites, impersonating online payment platforms like Dotpay or PayU.

 

impersonating online payments

Website impersonating online payment platform

 

In 2018 we also observed fake online shops business, which has been visibly developed by some actors. In last year number of incidents related to fake online shops tripled, comparing to 2017. At this point, we’d like to thank all users aware of this kind of threat, who report about such activities more often and more eagerly every year. Attackers tried to find as many victims as possible, e.g. by advertising their shops in social media and popular search engines, where they were optimizing their shops’ position on the list of search results.

 

an example of fake online shop

An example of a fake shop “offering” electronics at the attractive prices

 

The second most popular category of incidents was malware. It’s a broad category with many subcategories, but usually we marked incidents related to malware as “unclassified”. Firstly, because in many scenarios more than one malware family was used, incorporating variety of methods and attack techniques. Secondly, we registered significant number of incidents concerning ransomware, which unfortunately don’t have its own category in eCSIRT.net classification. In that aspect the classification isn’t perfect yet, but we hope that in the next revision it will be updated.

A vast number of malware incident reports was related to attacks on Polish users. Popular scenarios concerning emails with fake invoice, delivery details or claim for payment (or additional payment) continued spreading in different versions. These emails usually contained malicious attachment as a script, document with macros or link leading to some website distributing malware (e.g. banker or mobile banker app, depending on User-Agent HTTP header).

 

email with malicious attachment

Email with malicious attachment pretending to be an invoice

 

This year for the first time we publish classification of incidents divided into Polish economy sectors. You can find detailed information in the table below. At a glance significant number of incidents is marked as Other (3 out of 4 incidents were classified to this category). These were mostly incidents concerning individuals or private entities. Next places in the classification belong to banking sector and public administration. Total number of the latter was little, comparing to the Other category. We are aware that presented classification is far from ideal. However, we had created this classification before CERT Polska has been designated as one of the three national-level CSIRTs under National Cybersecurity System law. Now, when the law is in force, we’ll be able to specify categories of this classification to reflect security of different economy sectors in a better way.

Sector Incidents %
IT infrastructure 29 0,78
Public health care 13 0,35
Banking 643 17,2
Other financial institutions 62 1,66
Energy industry 20 0,53
Transport 51 1,36
Public administration 85 2,27
Water supply 2 0,05
Other 2834 75,8
Total 3739 100

Table 2. Incidents handled by CERT Polska divided into Polish economy sectors

 

More conclusions you’ll find in our annual report (coming soon). You’re warmly welcomed to follow CERT Polska’s blog and our profiles in social media to be up-to-date with latest news concerning publication of our report.

Strengthening our malware analysis capabilities

Date of publication: 21/02/2019, piotrb

During last year we have collaborated with Hatching.io on improving the open source Cuckoo Sandbox. The main works were focused on porting advanced mechanisms for memory analysis which were developed internally by our team in the previous years. The public release of the onemon marks the last stage of this collaboration. We are proud that results of this work are now available to the security community.
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Detricking TrickBot Loader

Date of publication: 05/02/2019, Michał Praszmo


    TrickBot (TrickLoader) is a modular financial malware that first surfaced in October in 20161. Almost immediately researchers have noticed similarities with a credential-stealer called Dyre. It is still believed that those two families might’ve been developed by the same actor.

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    Recommendations on mitigation of man-in-the-middle phishing attacks (evilginx2/Modlishka)

    Date of publication: 31/01/2019, Michał Leszczyński

    CERT Polska has observed an interesting phishing technique used in attack against users of a popular Polish content aggregator. We have also noticed the emergence of a new tool called “Modlishka” whose purpose is to simplify and automate phishing attacks. In this article, we describe the way these highly-automated attacks work and present our recommendations for creators of websites for defending about them.Read more

    MWDB – our way to share information about malicious software

    Date of publication: 16/01/2019, CERT Polska

    Analysis of current threats is one of the most common challenges facing almost any organization dealing with cybersecurity. From year to year, it also becomes a harder nut to crack, being undoubtedly influenced by the growing scale of activities undertaken by criminals and the degree of their advancement. In the face of this situation, efficient exchange of information between researchers is a key issue.
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    Dissecting Smoke Loader

    Date of publication: 18/07/2018, Michał Praszmo

    Smoke Loader (also known as Dofoil) is a relatively small, modular bot that is mainly used to drop various malware families.

    Even though it’s designed to drop other malware, it has some pretty hefty malware-like capabilities on its own.

    Despite being quite old, it’s still going strong, recently being dropped from RigEK and MalSpam campaigns.

    In this article we’ll see how Smoke Loader unpacks itself and interacts with the C2 server.

     

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    Technical aspects of CTF contest organization

    Date of publication: 09/07/2018, Michał Leszczyński


    CTF competitions often turn out to be a great amusement, but they also play a very important role in training of IT security specialists. Such kinds of challenges are challenging both to contestants and organizers. This article will describe organizational aspects related to such competitions, taking European Cyber Security Challenge 2018 qualifications as an example.

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    n6 released as open source

    Date of publication: 21/06/2018, pp

    We are happy to announce that another system developed by our team, n6 (Network Security Incident eXchange), has been released to the community on an open source licence.

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    Backswap malware analysis

    Date of publication: 19/06/2018, Hubert Barc

      Backswap is a banker, which we first observed around March 2018. It’s a variant of old, well-known malware TinBa (which stands for “tiny banker”). As the name suggests, it’s main characteristic is small size (very often in the 10-50kB range). In the summary, we present reasoning for assuming it’s the same malware.
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      Ostap malware analysis (Backswap dropper)

      Date of publication: 01/06/2018, Paweł Srokosz

        Malicious scripts, distributed via spam e-mails, have been getting more complex for some time. Usually, if you got an e-mail with .js attachment, you could safely assume it’s just a simple dropper, which is limited to downloading and executing malware. Unfortunately, there is a growing number of campaigns these days, where script doesn’t exit after downloading sample. Instead of ending its life – it remains active, waiting for additional commands or more samples to fetch. Some of the examples are: vjw0rm used in Vortex ransomware campaigns and Ostap – the main protagonist of our story.

        This article is an introduction to Backswap malware analysis, which is a second-stage malware downloaded by Ostap. Our analysis of Backswap malware will be published soon!

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